Initial tests using DNA microarray assessed which of the human genes were expressed differently compared to regular cells and cancerous cells. With the development of medical science and technology, the method has help doctors around the world with more developments and innovation for accurate treatment for cancer such as Urinary Bladder cancer or Breast cancer. In fact, DNA microarray are currently a fundamental tool to brave cancer, helping medical professionals to recognize particular subtypes within an ailment type.
The method is expected to bear positive results for the treatment of cancer patients. According to an article published on https://www.huffpost.com, a lot depends on when a cancer patient has trust and confidence in the medical profession. Read on to learn more about DNA microarray analysis.
DNA Microarray Principles
When it comes to the technical solutions built up for doing DNA microarray examination, it is the process of scrutinizing numerous nucleic acid remains at the same time. Did you know that most of the microarray systems have these elements? They are the array containing powerless nucleic acid targets or sequences — a couple of labeled probes or samples, which are hybridized together with the microarray.
DNA Microarray Analysis
The production of microarray needs three essential elements including the production method, target genetic content, and microarray slide. There are two parallel ways for the manufacturing of microarray slides. When it comes to nucleic acid targets, they can be combined right away into the DNA microarray slide. As far as purified targets are concerned, professionals can deposit the same onto a solid surface with the potential to unite nucleic acids.
Oligo synthesis is performed by attaching chemically altered linker groups onto the surface of the glass. The groups comprise of photo-chemically detachable shielding materials. Now, with the masking of various predefined positions in different DNA microarray steps, one can synthesize various nucleotides at different regions. When it comes to target synthesis, they continue in a stepwise manner. In every step, the unsafe areas are activated first with the use of light to eliminate the groups sensitive to the light. The other steps include deposition, non-contact deposition, and contact deposition.
Main Slide Types
Amine Slides: One can introduce amine groups onto the slides by treating clean glass with a material called amino silane. One can attach unaltered DNA to amine-altered slides. The process may denature the DNA, thus enhancing its binding attraction. You can employ UV treatment to immobilize the DNA onto the surface of the slide.
Aldehyde Slides: One can attach the amino-altered DNA to microarray slides that have been changed with Aldehyde groups. When it comes to the aliphatic amine on the amino-altered DNA, it serves as a nucleophile. Attacking the carbon atom aldehydes, the nucleophile is attached to the slide surface. As far as the unreacted aldehyde groups are concerned, they transform into non-reactive primary alcohols through treating with sodium borohydride. The other slides types are reflective and poly-lysine slides.
Target Nucleic Acids
It is one of the critical elements in DNA microarray production, and the cleanliness of these solutions is imperative for the effective attachment of nucleic acids to the surface of the slide as well as the availability of the immobilized targets for hybridization.
So you can understand the importance of DNA microarray analysis in battling cancer.